Page Title
Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Website Evaluation and Citation: Evaluating Online Sources: The CRAAP Test

This guide offers you some questions to ask yourself before you decide a web site has the information you need.

Website Credibility

The Internet is great.  How did we ever survive without it?  However, anyone can put anything on the Web.  Therefore, it's important to know where the information is coming from and if it's accurate. 

It all comes down to credibility. But how can you judge whether your web source is credible?

Download the CRAAP Website Evaluation Flyer

Should I Trust a Site?


Ask Yourself About:

Currency: The timeliness of the information:  

  • When was the information published or posted?  
  • Has the information been revised or updated? 
  • Does your topic require current information, or will older sources work as well?
  • Are the links functional?

​Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs.

  • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
  • Would you be comfortable citing this source in your research paper?

Authority: The source of the information.

  • Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
  •  What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations?
  •  Is the author qualified to write on the topic?
  •  Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address?
  • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? examples: .com .edu .gov .org .net

Accuracy: The reliability, truthfulness and correctness of the content.

  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
  • Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?
  • Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?
  • Are there spelling, grammar or typographical errors?

Purpose: The reason the information exists.

  • What is the purpose of the information? Is it to inform, teach, entertain, sell a product, or persuade the reader to a particular point of view?
  • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
  • Is the information fact, opinion or propaganda?
  • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
  • Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases? 

Fact-Checking Services

Use these reputable sources to fact-check the reliability of information you may find questionable.

Watch a Youtube video on Website Evaluation

Visual learner? These videos (by library professionals) help you determine the credibility of any website.